Q.:  Is Registration Of IPR Necessary?
Ans :-   No :- In case of  :- Trade Mark & Copyright
Yes :- For Patents, Industrial Designs, Geographical Indications

Q.:   How Copyright comes in to Existence !

Registration of Copyright w.r.t any logo / trade mark is not necessary or compulsory under the provisions of the Indian Copyright Act, 1957. Automatic protection is available to an artistic work, form the date when the artistic work / logo was designed. Copyright Comes in to existence when the concept in mind is put in to some tangible form or crated.

Q.: Trade Mark ! Who is protected?

Ans.: A trade mark is granted protection on the basis of

  • First Adoption
  • First User
  • First Inventor
  • First Invention / Adoption/ User is superior then the Registration

Q.: What are the Rights conferred by the Registration of IPR i.e. Trade Mark ,      Patent , Industrial Designs , Geographical Indications ?
Ans.: Monopoly for the Specified period is created in favour of the Registration Holder

  • In case of Litigation Onus of Proof Shifts on the opposite Party
  • Prima Facie presumption is raised in favour of the Registration Holder by courts

Q.: Can the Registration of IPR cancelled or Revoked?
Ans.:   Yes, In case the registration has been obtained by

  • Fraud
  • Misrepresentation
  • Wrongly
  • Against the rights of some other party / opponent
  • Registered by the Registrar erroneously
  • Registration prohibited under some law
  • Registration is against public policy or morals

Q.: When Registration can be Prevented or Revoked / cancelled ?
Ans.:    During the Process of Registration
– By filing Opposition and After Registration
– By filing Rectification Petition

Q.: What is the Test of Comparison in case of violation of IPR/       TM/Copyright/ Design / GI ?

 Ans.:     There are two ways to compare Similarities between two trade marks :-

    • PHONETIC Similarity
    • OCCULAR Similarity
    • Other tests for comparison are :-

    Other Tests of Comparison

    • Likely hood of confusion and deception
    • From the angle of a prudent person of ordinary intelligence
    • No Microscopic Comparison
    • No Actual confusion or Deception is Required
    • Actual Loss or Damage not necessary


    • Injunction/ stay
    • Damages can be claimed
    • Accounts and handing over of profits
    • Appointment of local commissioner by the court for custody/ sealing of infringing material / accounts

Interim Injunction:-

    • Ex-Parte
    • After Hearing

Procedure & Process for a Civil Case

    • Filing of plaint, with supporting evidence at the time of filing of the suit;
    • Filing of application under order 39 rule 1 & 2 read with sec. 151 of the Code of Civil Procedure, for grant of ex-parte ad-interim;
    • Filing of application under order 26 of the Code of Civil Procedure for appointment of a local commissioner, to make inventory and / or to take possession of the infringing material form the premises of the defendants, their agents, retailers and distributors etc.;
    • Hearing of arguments by court on application for grant of ex-parte injunction and appointment of local commissioner;
    • If the court is satisfied, the court may grant ex-parte and interim injunction and appoint a local commissioner.


    • The court may give a short notice to the defendants for giving them an opportunity of hearing before granting any temporary injunction or appointing a local commissioner;
    • Service of notice/ summons of the court on the defendants;
    • Filing of written statement / reply by the defendant;
    • Hearing on application for grant of interim injunction;
    • Further proceedings in the suit including filing of replication / rejoinder, admission / denial of documents, framing of issues;
    • Trial
    • Judgment by the court.

Statutory Provisions

    • Trade Marks Act, 1999
    • Copyright Act, 1957
    • Designs Act, 2000
    • Patents Act , 1970
    • Geographical Indications of Goods( Registration and Protection) Act , 1999
    • Code of Civil Procedure, 1908
    • Specific Relief Act, 1963

Criminal Remedies Against Infringement of Trade Mark , Geographical Indications & Copyright , & Passing off

    • Filing of criminal complaint before the chief judicial magistrate / chief metropolitan magistrate, of the concerned jurisdiction
    • Leading evidence w.r.t. the infringement of the trade mark
    • Filing of application under sec. 91/93 of the Code of Criminal Procedure for issue of search and seizure warrants
    • Orders/ directions by the Court to police for the search and seizure of infringing material.


    • Or in alternative direction by the court to police for investigation, lodging of an FIR and search and seizure, under sec. 156 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.


    • Filing a Complaint / FIR with Police

Statues Invoked For Criminal Action

    • Sec. 103 / 104 of the Trade Marks Act, 1999
    • Sec. 63 and 64 of the Copyright Act, 1957
    • Sec. 39 of the Geographical Indication of Goods Act, 1999
    • Sec. 420 of the India Penal Code
    • Sec. 91/93 of the Code of Criminal Procedure

Q.: In which court a Civil Case can be filed against violation of IPR ?       
Ans.:      In India, the jurisdiction for the purposes of filing a civil suit, will depend upon following facts, and subject to the following conditions:-

    • Where the cause of action has accrued;
    • Where the part of the cause of action has accrued;
    • Where the properties / violations are taking place;
    • Where the defendants reside or work for gain;
    • In brief, the jurisdiction for the purposes of filing a case would
    • depend upon the activities of the defendants / their place of business.

Competent Court for Civil Action

    • In India a suit may be instituted in any Court of original jurisdiction, subject to its pecuniary & territorial jurisdiction. The Designation of the lowest court is “District & Sessions Judge”. These cases can also be filed in the High Court, directly, if such High Court is having original jurisdiction, e.g. Delhi High Court, which has the original jurisdiction.
    • The Jurisdiction of High Court could be invoked, subject to the payment of Court fees, which is diminishing in nature. The structure of Court fees vary from state to state.

Q.: Can Legal Action Under The Trade Marks Act, 1999 and the Copyright Act,      1957, be combined ?
Ans.:      if the artwork, get up, design, color combination of a trade mark/ label/ packing material is similar and / or deceptively similar, the provisions of the Copyright Act, 1957, can also be invoked along with the Trade Marks Act, 1959, and this course of action is always preferable, as under the provisions of the Copyright Act, 1957, the offence becomes COGINIZABLE, and police can, on its own directly initiate Criminal proceedings after registration of an FIR.


    • Criminal Complaint in the Court of competent jurisdiction;
    • Pre summoning Evidence, for satisfying the court on the basis of the evidence placed on record, that the allegations by complainant are prima facie maintainable;
    • Issue of General/ specific Search and Seizure Warrants, along with directions to police;
    • Raid / Search & Seizure by Police
    • Investigation and arrest (if necessary) of accused persons;
    • Arguments;
    • Summons / Warrants against accused persons;
    • Accused Appear and seek bail;
    • Framing of charges, after notice of allegations;
    • Trial
    • Onus of proof is on the complainant

Information and Requirements for filing an IPR Civil / Criminal Case

  • Detailed profile & history of the company.
  • Significance of the trade mark “xxxxxxxxx”.
  • Product range / product profile / trade mark profile.
  • Complete catalogue / brochures / price list.
  • Year of adoption and user of the trade mark.
  • Year wise sale figure of the products under the trade mark “xxxxxxxxx”, since the year of the adoption of the trade mark.
  • Year wise advertisement figure of the products under the trade mark “xxxxxxxxx”, since the year of the adoption of the trade mark.
  • Copy of 2-3 bills every year / in which the trade mark xxxxxxxxx is mentioned, since the year of the adoption of the trade mark.
  • Copy of 2-3 advertisement brochures, catalogues etc of every year / in which the trade mark xxxxxxxxx is mentioned, since the year of the adoption of the trade mark.
  • Copy of some correspondence by your customers / clients.
  • Some information / details about your clientele.
  • Some information about your tie ups / arrangements / technology details, to convince the court about the bonafied and goodwill of your claims.
  • Countries of export / import and where your business activities are carried out.
  • List of persons, their proprietor / partners/ owners / or any other known information with address, who are infringing trade mark / copyright, along with
  • Their product details / range
  • Business activities
  • Area of business
  • Brochures / pamphlets / labels / photographs and other business info Whether any such infringer is related with your company in any manner, whatsoever, at any point of time during your business activities, their status in your company, nature of information available to them, and when they disassociated themselves from your company.
  • Estimated / expected loss by them
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